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Brief Diagnosis Descriptions

Brief Diagnosis Explanations

Exotropia

When one or both eyes turn outward. This can make using eyes together more difficult because of the “wandering” eye, leading to confusion with directions (right vs. left), locating objects in space, and/or double vision; headaches, migraines, or belly aches after reading, driving, or screen time.

Esotropia

When one or both eyes turn inward. This can make using eyes together more difficult because of the “wandering” eye, leading to confusion with directions (right vs. left), locating objects in space, and/or double vision; headaches, migraines, or belly aches after reading, driving, or screen time.

Vision-Vestibular Disturbance 

The vestibular system responds to visual information to guide the body relative to gravity and space. This disturbance creates an inability for stable vision when the patient has frequent changes in position or head movement. Dysfunction can lead to symptoms such as:

  • motion sickness,
  • difficulties moving in space, such as performing a tackle or catching a ball,
  • experiencing irritation/ anxiety in crowds
  • anxiety while driving
  • poor balance,
  • dizziness,
  • clumsy,
  • fear of heights,
  • poor sense of danger,
  • poor sense of distance,
  • poor personal space

Visually-Guided Body Movement (Gross Motor) Deficit

This is a patient’s inability to coordinate large groups of muscles to move together in response to visual information, leading to difficulties with proper posture and gait (awkward walk/run). This deficit in gross motor (large muscle group) skills can directly affect the ability to develop fine (small muscle group) motor skills as well, as gross motor skills must be developed first.

Visual Imagery (Visualization) Deficit

This refers to the inability to create or recall visual images mentally; this can affect the ability to understand abstract concepts, poor reading comprehension, and low directionality/spatial awareness.

Refractive Amblyopia

When the acuity (20/20 measure) in one eye is significantly less than the other, in the absence of disease or injury) and with or without prescription, leading to an imbalance that encourages suppression of binocular vision. Head tilt, closing or covering one eye, and crooked posture can interfere with proper vision development and can indicate this issue is present.

Strabismic Amblyopia

A patient’s eye can have poorer clarity, even when wearing a prescription, when accompanied with the inward or outward turn of that eye. This also causes issues with both eyes wanting to work together, and possibly suppression of the eye with strabismic amblyopia. Brain begins to ignore eye that is not straight. eyes are not straight, can be up or down also.

Convergence Insufficiency 

This term describes the eyes’ inability or difficulty in coming together (“crossing”). Because the eyes come together when looking at things up close, this can lead to fatigue (watering, redness, headaches) with reading and writing.

Diplopia

Both eyes take in information and the brain fuses the two into one image. When this fusing does not occur, diplopia (double vision) results. It can be constant or intermittent. Words may move on the page, there may be confusion as to where objects actually are (they may appear to move suddenly or randomly), or which confusion about which image is “real” can lead to problems with coordination, anxiety, irritability, and frustration.

Suppression of Binocular Vision

Due to difficulty teaming the eyes together, an otherwise healthy eye is increasingly ignored by the brain to reduce confusion; eventually, only one eye is used at a time, affecting depth perception and coordination, and potentially causing headaches/migraines, frustration, fatigue, and stress.

Deficiency of Saccadic Eye Movement 

Eyes do not “land” accurately or simultaneously on the object they are looking at; focus may be blurry or have a lag or delay when changing from one location to another. This can lead to fatigue and difficulty making quick judgments and decisions (hitting a baseball, copying from a board during lecture, driving, etc.).

Eye Movement Disorder

Due to ocular-motor deficits, eye movement is not smoothly coordinated; person tracks objects with “skips” or “jumps” (words may move on the page, head follows eyes or moves while reading, lose place easily when reading, or fatigue very quickly when reading because of the extra energy required to keep eyes moving together as a team).

Accommodative (focus) Insufficiency (AI)

AI is characterized by an inability to focus (see clearly) or sustain focus at near, and an inability to change focus efficiently from near-to-far. This can lead to fatigue with visual detail, making reading, looking back and forth from desk to board, driving, and eye contact exhausting. Poor concentration, attention, memory, and ability to adapt to changes can impact learning and work.

 

 

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